In my opinion, men are less mature than women when it comes to relationship matters like this. I am a man, and I can see that our reasons for pulling away can be silly sometimes. Like the article says, we pull away because we are bored, we are jealous, or we don’t have relationship skills. The one good reason we have here is we are focused on work or school (This could be real, or we say it sometimes as an excuse). Anyway, I believe women usually have better reasons for ending a relationship than men. This is just an opinion, if you are a man, please don’t take it as an offend.

Out of all other advice out there that I was reading, your information is the most that made perfect sense to me, you, at your young age, you have a lot of experience that you were able to collect, organize perfectly and,…help people! It’s an incredible collection that is easy to read, relate and understand, material, which is fun, no BS:), freely given, not always trying to sell another product, deep, personal, open, detailed, incredibly valuable, abundant and helpful not only in relationships between man and woman, but in life in general. When you write about having a particular mindset, you talk about things that was a missing ingredient for me when it came to decide that you really are above a lot of other so called relationship gurus!


I met this guy 6 weeks ago via tinder and we hit it off after 3 weeks. He said he wanted to be exclusive with me and we text and talk everyday even when he’s travelling. The thing is, he is always travelling for work and when I met him back after his 2 weeks of travel (1 week ago) , I was excited to see him but I was facing with a lot of family problems (family member has cancer) that time. He was telling me how much stress he was facing during the last biz trip and I listened and comforted him. Before we parted, I said I needed a break from this relationship as is moving too fast, instead of telling him my family issues. He looked disappointed and said OK and left. He did not initiate any contact with me for the past 1 week except when he just text me arrived safely at the airport that time. The next day I text him saying I am stressed out and feel bad abt what I said to him, he didn’t reply. I text him 2 days later asking is everything OK, he said all good and he’s tired. Then 4 days later I text him that I wanted to rekindle the relationship again, no reply. I’m thinking is he pulling away as I demanded space? But I already said I want to start again. He is coming back in 5 days time. I don’t know what should I do then? Shall I wait for him to contact me or if he doesn’t, means he wants to end with me?

The trick is to actually do things that you like and to actually do something. That way you will put some distance between the two of you during times that you are not normally apart, benefit from expanding your talents, skills, or knowledge, and have something to show for it when you get back together. You will be able to fill your guy in on what you learned, what you did, and how much fun it was, which is much more exciting than the same old conversations you have day in and day out.
Now, the following strategies for getting him to bring up the subject all entail risk: Having The Talk, no matter who initiates it, might either scare him off or cause him to give you an answer you don't want to hear ("I don't want a commitment, but I'd love to continue having sex with you. Okay?"). But come on. You don't want to spend the rest of your life pining for some guy who thinks you're great to share a burger and a bed with but little else, right? The risk is generally worth taking.
Take up extreme sports. Do that, and he may think he's losing you. The point here isn't so much that you risk your life but that you actually create more of a life outside his orbit. Canceling a date because you want to make him jealous is lame, but canceling a date because, hey, you've got your karate classes tonight and your flying lessons tomorrow, is sort of cool. Once there's something competing for your attention, he begins to wonder how much he really matters in your life scheme. All you're doing is filling up your time with cool stuff he might like to do, but you're not including him. He's got to wonder if you're drifting away, and in order to lay claim reasonably to more of your time, he'll have to be explicit about how much time he wants. In other words, he'll have to bring up The Talk. Risk factor: Low, with regard to losing him; high, when it comes to your own personal safety, especially if you choose a hobby known for producing fatalities. (Hint: No guy — no matter how great — is worth scaling Everest for.)
The glossy magazines that litter the newsstands do a real disservice to you all by defining beauty in such a narrow way. A quick flip through the pages and it’s boringly obvious that most of the models and celebrities featured in these magazines are really a variation on the same theme. The truth for us men, however, is that beauty is diverse and idiosyncratic. (Great news for you.) Some of us want the well-endowed woman, while others are repulsed by the surgically enhanced. Some of us want tall and slim, while others want short and curvaceous. Some of us want you to have some “junk in the trunk,” while others want it small and tight. There really is some truth to the saying, “There’s a lid for every pot.” The challenge for most women, however, is finding that fit.
I’ve been seeing a guy for about six months now. Everything in the relationship is great- we get along, we have fun together, we just get each other. The only thing is he won’t commit to me. He said he wasn’t hooking up with anyone else, only me, but he’s not ready to use titles.  I know his last relationship ended badly, so that might be part of it. I just don’t get it, the relationship is so great in every way aside from this.
Answer: You can’t make someone be at the same place as you. The only thing you can do is give him the space he needs to figure out if he wants to join you or move on. Let him go and figure things out, and if he is ready to move forward with you, he’ll let you know. Pushing him is only going to drive him farther away and will make him think you aren’t the one. [Read: The 10 best kept secrets to making a man commit to you]
This has nothing to do with money, but instead, it has everything to do with small favors that he can perform for you. If you’re stuck on the side of the road, ask him to pick you up. Or, if you can’t reach the light fixture in your bedroom, ask him to come over and change the bulb for you. These small tasks may not seem like much, but over time, he will subconsciously feel attached to you because of all of the work that he has put in. People tend to like you more if they do favors for you, it’s a theory called the "Ben Franklin Effect.” So continue to ask him to do small things here and there. In no time, he’ll feel so connected to you, he will be anxious to ask you to be his girlfriend!
If you have to issue ultimatums to get him to commit to a relationship, you may end up hurting each other in the process. Anything done under duress is bound to blow up in your face. If you don’t want to end up with a disastrous relationship, you should avoid forcing someone’s hand. This should not even be on the list of the things to do if you want to learn how to get a man to commit.

It`s so true like you said in the post “Commitment is scary but it’s the most beautiful, courageous and beneficial thing you can do for yourself. Once you commit, life becomes so.much.simpler. Your emotional constipation ceases to exist as does looking for laxatives in the form of gossip, acting on impulse, engaging in friendsh*ts, relationsh*ts and validation seeking.”
My man is going through a withdrawal period now, and I won’t lie, it’s tough. But anyway the fact is that when he withdraws, as a woman you feel like he doesn’t care anymore, he’s pulling a slow fade, he’s toying with me. This may be true, especially if he’s generally uncaring, treata you like crap, i.e. if there was never that connection between the two of you. However if the man has never given you a reason to not trust him, then maybe you must acknowledge that yours fears are just fears – not based on any factual evidence.
Two months ago I met a man. We were so attracted to each other that it all happened so fast, on the first date. He warned me that he didn’t want a relationship… I did my best to listen to his feelings, show understanding and get some intimacy and we eventually got close and started meeting every week. I was sleeping over at his house, we were having good time, having sex, doing normal things like cooking and spending the whole weekend together. I knew he had a very problematic past – a father who never married his mother or took any responsibility, a brother from another mother who caused him problems, personal problems with drugs in the past and two broken relationships with 1) bulimic anorexic girl and 2) a girl who cheated on him 10 months ago. I was so good to listen, give him the peace he needed and be very patient with him.

I have a long distance relationship since Jan (Spain-Sweden) seeing every 3 weeks, he said he doesnt have time for full time gf which i said ok so distance is fine so it has been fine as he is been full on even flew to surprise me like crazy! and i know he is crazy about me, all is good but suddenly (2 weeks ago) he said i am in his head all day and he needs to focus in work as he has a financial goal. and break up w me but in tears so it showed me he cares about me but we talked after and i believe, been w me has affected his work and he feels bad about it. i told him we can step back a bit so he can focus in work. help!!!!!!
Let the royals care about titles. One of the biggest mistakes you can make during the early hook is to suggest or even hint that things have started to formalize by assigning the labels “girlfriend” and “boyfriend.” Even if you feel like things are going in the right direction and that your relationship is getting more serious, there’s an extremely wide gulf between just being someone you’re dating and someone who has been officially proclaimed a boyfriend. What your man wants you to know but won’t tell you is that affixing titles to the relationship too early is like holding up a cross to a vampire. We will often run fast and hard when we feel like we’re being boxed into something we don’t want or is too premature.
If you think your man is pulling away from you, it's imperative that you take a moment to reflect on your own actions and behavior. After being completely honest with yourself, you can see if you're the one who's actually growing distant and shutting him out, and he's simply reacting to your behavior. If he's feeling unappreciated, unimportant to you, or taken for granted, he may pull away from you because he's not getting what he needs from you as a partner.
I enjoy reading your articles. I’ve been seeing this guy for almost a year. We dated before 6 years ago and the reason we stopped dating is because he said I was pushing for something he wasn’t ready for. I didn’t realize I was pushing. He’s saying now like he said before, he doesn’t want a girlfriend right now, he’s too busy. But yet he’s still interested. He has said things to me like, “I’ve been thinking about you a lot and there’s nothing I can do about”, “We are more than just friends”, and then he pulls away again. It’s been an emotional roller coaster ride with him. He lives an hour away, we only text once a week or so, and only see each other every 2 or 3 months. We get frustrated with each and have arguments but still want to see each other so there’s something there. We are both Scorpios so I’ve been reading articles about 2 Scorpios being in a relationship and reading your articles. I’ve tried very hard not to seem “pushy” and realize the relationship is what it currently is. But how long do I have to wait for him to want to see me more? What should I say to him?
Psychologists recommend that you should balance your time together and apart to maintain a sense of well-being as an individual and as a couple; however, most of us don’t find that balance. Between work (that isn’t really alone time), spending time with family and friends, and going to engagements as a couple, it can be hard to find any alone time.
Well, Eric Charles is the guy and he promotes the masculine behavior. For God sake, women, our message is clear what we want in a relationship. I am tired that we are always trying to please those guys and etc. The reality is that guys behave as they want and we need to adjust to their particular needs. All those articles say that we need to understand their mindset and how they function so that we could finally find a happy relationship. We basically have to play games. Men are really complicated. Women are very simple. If they want something they say. shhh!!! watch out!! If you say this, the poor guy will be frightened. He does not want to commit. Do not make love with him because he will get what he wants and again he will not want to commit. Jesus! Then, why they do not try to understand how women function and to adjust. Most men are absolutely idiots when it comes to the relationship. We women can give some classes to our sons so that at least new men generation would be more aware of the subject which is “women”.
Thanks for your reply. To be clear, I wasn't attacking the entire article, just the particular comment. I think you need to be more careful and critical of what type of evidence you cite. Just because Mr Laumann has credentials doesn't make everything he says true (appeal to authority is a logical fallacy). James Watson (a nobel prize laureate) also said that Africans were less genetically less intelligent. Does that make it true? Scientists are also humans and they can have racist or sexist biases. Mr Laumann is obviously sexist. I mean, is there a study which proves that men leave their wives to die alone in nursing homes? That is inaccurate and doesn't reflect reality. Most of the women that I've met in nursing homes were widows whose husbands had died a few years earlier. Most men value their marriages and wouldn't walk out on a 30 plus year marriage for purely sexual reasons. Also, I think it is offensive to imply that men are pigs who care about nothing but sex (why is sex #1 for men and #4 for women?) While good sex is truly important and essential for men, I doubt that it's the #1 factor in long-term relationships.
It may be cliché, but a new makeover will do wonders to make him miss you. This is especially effective if the man you’re missing is an ex. Maybe you get a new haircut, treat yourself to a new make-up look at the mall, or sport a sexy, new outfit. Not only will the new look make you feel great about yourself, you will have that special someone want you back. Make sure that you go somewhere you know that he’ll be to show off the new you. If he sees you looking great it’s going to make him start thinking of you and wanting to be closer to you. This will work especially well if you’re getting attention from others around you guys. Of course if you aren't into getting a full on makeover then try a new hairstyle or switch up your usual lipstick color. This will get him thinking about how much you've moved on.
You can do this as a bit of a tease for your boyfriend. In this modern age, it’s so easy to just text or call your loved one. To make your boyfriend miss you, wait for a while to respond to him. Give him some time to yearn for a reply. That will make him miss you and want to talk to you even more. In other case, he might instantly want to meet you as he misses you too much.

It’s finally happening: you met a man you’re compatible with, you really like him, and the feeling is mutual. He’s showering you with attention, making plans to see you, making time to call you, and generally letting you know that he’s so happy to have found you. How does a man act when he’s falling in love? Just like this—and you’ve never been happier, or more thankful, to have him by your side.
If you’re like most women, when that special someone calls or sends a text, you want to respond back immediately, especially if you’ve been waiting to hear from him for a while. If you make him wait too long, maybe he’ll lose interest though, or is that just what you think? But that is definitely not the case. Responding to his contact right away sends the message that you are just sitting by your phone waiting for him to reach out. Men love a chase so you can't make it all too easy for him. A good rule of thumb is to make him wait twice as long as it took for him to respond to you last. These little games may be silly but they work and it will make him think about you and miss you. Patience will help you when it comes to texting and calling.

Don’t worry about him enjoying the free time with his friends. Of course, giving him space to enjoy is going to make you look confident and less clingy. He may seem to enjoy it, but eventually, your boyfriend will crave more time with you. So, the next time he tries to come up with excuses to hang out with his friends, let him go. If he wants to go on a boys’ trip, allow him. The more time he is away from you, the more he will realize what he’s missing. He might think his friends are important and deserves his time but he will soon learn that he can’t spend his lifetime with only them, he needs you.


Take up extreme sports. Do that, and he may think he's losing you. The point here isn't so much that you risk your life but that you actually create more of a life outside his orbit. Canceling a date because you want to make him jealous is lame, but canceling a date because, hey, you've got your karate classes tonight and your flying lessons tomorrow, is sort of cool. Once there's something competing for your attention, he begins to wonder how much he really matters in your life scheme. All you're doing is filling up your time with cool stuff he might like to do, but you're not including him. He's got to wonder if you're drifting away, and in order to lay claim reasonably to more of your time, he'll have to be explicit about how much time he wants. In other words, he'll have to bring up The Talk. Risk factor: Low, with regard to losing him; high, when it comes to your own personal safety, especially if you choose a hobby known for producing fatalities. (Hint: No guy — no matter how great — is worth scaling Everest for.)

As far as sex is concerned, my concise comment on the matter has always been that a woman knows best when to sleep with a guy — it’s her choice and nobody has a place to judge or shame that. At the same time, she would do best to make sure that she’s doing it because she wants to and never, ever from a place of fear (fear that he won’t stick around if she doesn’t, fear of him losing interest if she doesn’t, fear that’s she’s not enough without having sex with him, etc.)
We had very profound conversations, sharing the most intimate secrets and trusting each other. The physical part was amazing! After I couldn’t withhold my feelings on several occasions (two –three times during these two months) he started to pull back. The invitations to sleep over stopped all of a sudden, he stopped texting me every day and we have not met now for three weeks. I don’t see anything of what he told me before (that I was a different kind of a woman, that he hardly let someone so close to himself, that I am one of the few people he lets touch and hug him, that he cared about me given that he texted me every day, that I am a person worth having closer and that he didn’t want to hurt me). I try to revive things but every time I ask to meet he comes with “Maybe, if you find time although I am going out this weekend” and after going out “I got so drunk, I have a terrible hangover let’s meet another day” (which never comes), or when I ask whether we would meet he says “Let’s go to the cinema!” and then asks “Have you seen the movies? Although there is nothing good..” and it all stops there.

So true! You can’t coerce someone to be with you. When a guy wants to be with you they just will. That is what happened with my current boyrfriend. We dated before and he didn’t want a commitment. We broke up and dated other people. We started talking again after many months of being apart, became friends for some time and began spending more time together. It naturally came together well and after time we verbally agreed that we were together and just wanted to be with each other. End of story. It’s very simple.
I didn’t realize it then, but I don’t think I should’ve jumped back into the relationship so quickly. Because very soon afterwards, I started to fall into another slump after I lost two jobs within two months. I was stressed again, and started to feel depressed without realizing how much I put on his shoulders. He never complained. He was there for me. I feel like I took it for granted a little bit.
Treat your boyfriend. Find a way to surprise and treat your boyfriend now and then. Prepare his favorite meal, give him a massage, or allow him time to focus on his own hobbies or passions. This will show him how generous and loving you can be. Doing things he enjoys can be a good reminder that your relationship is valuable and he will miss good treatment from you when you are away.

Men who are emotionally unavailable can end up pulling away from their partner and growing distant because they are unwilling or unable to be totally forthright and honest. If your man never lets his guard down around you and never wants to divulge anything personal, he's going to shut you out because that's how he handles personal relationships.  
i miss him so much that i dont want to cry so i always keep it in were both in high school but he lives in spain while i live in england i just came back from my holiday there for a month and it felt only a week time goes by so fast whenever im happy it hurts so much especially when others say "your both young so dont be stressed about that do your studies first" i get that kind of point but love is an incredible feeling if you are inlove theres no stopping it
So me and this guy used to talk a lot face to face and then he asked for number one day and we texted all the time and spoke face to face but then after a year we no longer spoke face to face just cuz when we would act lovey dovey on text I started to freak out thinking it would be awkward face to face so yh that stopped but we still texted then I started liking him then ended up telllingg him n he said he liked me back but then his friend told me he was lying so I find out he was pretending cuz he felt bad even tho I said if. U don’t like me it’s okay.But yh we had a massively argument and didn’t speak for six weeks but I still liked him so being stupid I went running back and we have been talking ever since but now we have tiny arguments over silly stuff n he lied to me for the first time don’t get me wrong we still have a good time but I don’t know sometimes I feel like I’m wasting my time cuz I put effort it like I always text first n when I told him that he said it’s because he doesn’t kno when to and I’m like does it look like I know when ur available? No but I still text u. He also has this bff of his a girl who I get his close with but the pics they post together are couple-y. And Ik me and him ain’t together but I need advice, do I stop talking to him or what?
I met this guy online 3 months ago. We were texting each other continuously for 1 month before we actually meet. He is not boring and really fun to talk to and we have some similarities. The first time we met is on a club. He has 2 guys with him and I have one girl by my side. It was cool but I left early because I have work the following day. He then asked me to go out in a club, i said no because i have an event to attend, but I invited him on my birthday party. It was fun and that’s the first time we kissed. The next day we went out on a restaurant with his guy friend and everything was going so fine. then he left for work at a 160km town away from my city. We still communicate and now he asked me to go to that town with him. At first i said no, but then I go on with my girl friend coz she wants me to happy… we had an amazing weekend at his town. I stayed in his house. We drink, had moments together and even asked me why im shy around him. We kissed and acted like a couple. He talked about his family and his life, goals. At this moment we are very close but we are not talking about being together. I dont want to ask him coz i dont want him to feel pressured..
Why men pull away in most relationship when women are demanding and this is just an early stage of a relationship. Most women act this way without even realizing it. Being demanding means they demand for a commitment at a very early stage of their relationship. The key is to take it slow and give your boyfriend some time to take the relationship to next level. Men are usually slower when it comes to take relationship to next level, until it’s a love at first sight. Not only men but also any human being will not like if their partner is demanding with them and ask for more than what they can do. It creates dis-balance in a relationship and is also one of the reasons why most men pull away in a relationship.
MadameNoire is a sophisticated lifestyle publication that gives African-American women the latest in fashion trends, black entertainment news, parenting tips and beauty secrets that are specifically for black women. Black women seek information on a wide variety of topics including African-American hair care, health issues, relationship advice and career trends - and MadameNoire provides all of that.
Hey girl, I don´t want to be rude intruding in something that´s clearly none of my business, but reading you has made me very upset about you boyfriend, or well, the father of your child. He needed space, but started seing someone else? I know you must love him, but that´s not a mature way to behave. If he can´t be responsible for his actions and its consequences, you should better move on. And you say it was a planned pregnancy, so there was a discussion and plenty of time to declare that he was not sure about it, if that is the case. It is very unfair that now he gets to decide if he wants to be there, in this stage of life, if he is “ready”, while you are already pregnant and shouldn´t it be something just yours. He is inmature, selfish and irresponsible, you don´t need another child to raise but the one you are carrying. So, I send you from very far away, all my strenghts and good wishes, put yourself up together and love yourself, so once the baby is born he/she will have a caring mom. The best for you and your baby, take care of yourself…
Plan some sort of trip or vacation so you’re not at home being sad. Ten years ago, I went through a pretty rough breakup of a 2-year relationship. Rather than staying home and feeling sorry for myself, the first thing I did was book a trip to visit my brother in Washington DC. It was great because, while sure, he and I talked a little about the breakup, I was distracted just enjoying my bro time.
When he talks about something that’s important to him, follow up with additional questions. Remember what he says. Even if it’s not an interest that you share, be willing to learn about it. Who knows, maybe it’ll end up becoming something you’re passionate about as well. If not, being receptive to it regardless will show him you care more about him than doing exactly what you want with every second of your day.
If you have to issue ultimatums to get him to commit to a relationship, you may end up hurting each other in the process. Anything done under duress is bound to blow up in your face. If you don’t want to end up with a disastrous relationship, you should avoid forcing someone’s hand. This should not even be on the list of the things to do if you want to learn how to get a man to commit.
Another important relationship tip for women is to show gratitude. In many relationships, certain tasks, chores, and other actions start to be taken for granted. For example, while your partner may have a routine of taking out the trash, putting gas in the car, or doing the laundry, saying "thank you" and showing your appreciation for your partner's actions are key components of a successful relationship. No matter how grand the gesture is that your partner makes, whether it's buying you flowers or flour, you shouldn't hesitate to show your appreciation.  

This is the oldest trick in the book, but it works like a charm time and time again! As you recover from your breakup, and you decide that you want to make your ex miss you, you need to put your best foot forward. Unfortunately, the same old clothes aren’t going to do the trick. Instead, you need to revamp your wardrobe to reflect the new you. It’s as simple as buying a new pair of fitted jeans that accentuate your curves, a few shirts that highlight your best assets, and some skirts that will put your legs on display. When your ex sees you out and about in your new duds, you’ll definitely make him do a double take! You will trigger the emotion in him that not only reignites his attraction for you, but seeing you out looking and feeling fabulous will definitely make him miss you. Don’t be surprised if you receive a “you look great” text by the end of the night!


Don’t be confused by the earlier advice to not be overly available. By resisting the urge to jump for your phone the second he texts, you let a guy know not to take you for granted. That’s not the same as trying to make him view you as some magical being impossible to keep track of. When you value the rest of your life instead of constantly obsessing over your crush, you automatically become more desirable. This is genuine instead of manipulative, and eventually, a guy will pick up on which one you’re doing.
If going no contact is just a little too harsh, or you don’t think you can pull it off for 30-60 days, you can try another method to get your ex to miss you. After a breakup, it’s normal to want to hear from your ex, and you may be sitting by the phone waiting for him to call or text you. If you’re responding to all of his messages within a nanosecond, you’re not even giving the guy the opportunity to miss you. You’re far too available, and this sends off a message to your ex that you'll be right there waiting for him at all hours of the day. So instead of being so eager, back off a little bit and let his text message sit in your inbox for a few hours before responding. Some may call this game playing, but we think it’s the perfect recipe to get your ex to miss you! He’ll wonder why you’re no longer so quick to respond to him, and it will definitely make him miss hearing from you.
Another reason your man act differently is based on fear. Maybe he’s been hurt in the past. Or maybe the idea of commitment simply petrifies him. If you two can discuss whatever the issue is and begin to deal with it, there’s a good chance that you can then begin to create something real and lasting together. Often, fears crop up in a relationship because a person wants to deal with those doubts and move past them. If you can be a steady, reassuring partner that isn’t pushing too hard, while he deals with what’s scaring him, you two just might build a foundation together.

In 2018, the third year of Hack Spirit, I poured thousands of hours and considerable resources into creating these articles. It's a labor of love and remains free thanks to your patronage. If you found any value in these articles, please consider supporting what I do with a donation. Your support is what helps me to continue creating more Hack Spirit articles. To make a donation, select the amount and click the "donate" button below.
The last time I saw my boyfriend was 3 weeks ago. I understand that to some, it may not seem like that long, but to me, it feels like forever. Every time I get upset I always tell myself to go to my happy place only to realize my happy place is half an hour away and I have no way of getting there. I've made him happy when he was pissed and he's made me happy when I was sad. People say we're not good for each other, but who cares about what other people think. As long as I have him, I'm happy. Also, taking the time to write this actually made me feel a lot better. I'm still upset but I know things will get better.
I'm not saying that men are right in pulling away, they also need to acknowledge the part they play in bringing out the worst side of a woman's fears. But just for your sake, for the sake of your mental and emotional health, just let go… anyway this is not the time to be having "talks" about the relationship because he'll most likely be unable (or unwilling) to have such deep convos during such a time.
When you’re in a relationship and things are going well, you want to know whether it has a future. You’ve probably been dating a while, but you’ve found yourself in a sticky conundrum. You want to push things forward, but you’re unsure if your guy wants the same. Some men aren’t ready for that level of commitment, and some men will never be ready. I’ve known women who have dated men for eight, even ten years, waiting and waiting for him to propose. Much to their disappointment, they find out that he enjoyed the current setup they have and doesn’t want things to change.
×